I've got the Windows operating system running on my Galileo board now and I've actually managed to deploy a program to it.
No thanks to the Galileo Watcher program though, which is supposed to detect your board and tell you when it is available. This has steadfastly refused to notice my device, even when I run the watcher program as Administrator and connect both the computer and the Galileo board to the same wired network.
However, Visual Studio 2013 detects the board and will deploy to it quite happily. Even via WiFi. I built the sample project and flashed a led, as you do. I noticed, much to my great joy, that I can put breakpoints in the code, single step through it and work with variables in the immediate window of Visual Studio.
This board just got a lot more interesting. You can find out more here.
Update: This is the Galileo version 1 board, which it would appear is now replaced by the Version 2. In other words, if you decide to splash out on one of these devices, make sure that you get the Version 2. It has much better connectors and a higher performance interface to the Arduino pins.